The plight of the Passenger Pigeon: How Museum collections are helping us to better understand their Story
Sat in Shrewsbury Museum and Art Gallery, surrounded by other natural history specimens, is a small pink and grey passenger pigeon on a branch. She is just one of many creatures in the museum’s collection that can now only been seen in books or museum showcases. Like many museums worldwide, Shropshire Museums ensures that specimens like her survive as both a reminder of our impact upon the environment but also a vital resource for future research.
The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America and possibly the world. A single flock could contain more than a billion birds. John James Audubon, awed by the spectacle of passenger pigeons in Kentucky in the fall of 1813, writing that “the light of noonday was obscured as by an eclipse; the dung fell in spots, not unlike melting flakes of snow; and the continued buzz of wings had a tendency to lull my senses to repose.” As mass shooting for sport and food reduced their numbers, museums collected examples to illustrate their plight. Today, scientists are still trying to answer the question as to how they became extinct so quickly.
A new study of the passenger pigeon’s genome, published recently in the journal Science, outlines new research into this puzzle. This recent investigation suggests that passenger pigeon populations were stable for thousands of years, even during periods of dramatic climate change. Studies of small samples taken from museum specimens have found that the pigeon population, although huge, lacked genetic diversity. The study concluded that much of the bird’s genetic code shows signs of strong natural selection, but very little evidence of ongoing small genetic changes that would help it to adapt if the ecosystem changed.
“Our mass murder of them over the course of decades was just too fast for their evolution to keep up,” said Beth Shapiro, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC-Santa Cruz and one of the paper’s co-authors.
It is therefore no wonder that Shropshire’s Passenger Pigeon is looked down upon rather wistfully by a portrait of Charles Darwin, who first fully published the process of evolution. Her, like many other specimens cared for by generations of museum curators, is all science have left to understand her species’ story.
Our latest exhibition ‘Exposed’ had prompted us to look more widely at our collections to see how the perception of the perfect figure has changed over time. Fashion, like art, is a case in point, manipulating the body to fit the latest trends. With this in mind, our costume volunteers had selected a piece from the collection to display outside the special exhibitions gallery.
This day dress was made in the Edwardian period by upcycling an 1830s outfit. In the late 19th century concern about tight lacing corsets caused a change in fashion. The new S-bend corset thrust the hips backwards and forced the chest forward into what was called the ‘pouter-pigeon’ shape. As this exerted less pressure on the stomach area it was thought to be safer to wear. However, any benefits were more than outweighed by injuries caused to the back due to the unnatural posture that it forced upon its wearer.
By the First World War women were abandoning corsets and moving to less restrictive undergarments. The invention of latex in the 1930s also allowed the production of washable elasticated fabrics. Silhouette, who had their factory in Shrewsbury was one of the first UK companies to adopt these new styles and to begin manufacturing more comfortable elastic girdles. From the 1950s onwards their Little X, which is on display in the costume gallery, proved particularly popular among young women.
From our carefully preserved chinese ‘lotus feet’ slippers in the store through the jimmy choo shoes tip tapping down the gallery for our weddings brochure fashion shoot the story of women’s pursuit of the perfect outline is here to be seen.